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and Vessels
used in Feasts,
Ceremonies and
Temple Worship
by Priests


Although use of the Temple Implements were made via directions from God, Himself, the complete creation and proper use of these implements did not occur until the time of Solomon when the Hebrews built the permanent temple in Jerusalem. During Moses' reign, the chief priest was his borhter Aaron. For more details see our section: "Third Temple"

Copper Laver or Muchni - The copper laver and stand, which stands in the Temple courtyard between the sanctuary and the outer altar, is the first of the Temple vessels to greet the priests each morning. There the priests wash their hands and feet before proceeding to attend to the daily tamid offering.
Mizrak - The priest collects the blood from the sacrifice into the Mizrak, and then spills the blood onto the corner of the altar.
Large Mizrak - The large mizrak, as the smaller mizrak, is used to gather the blood of the sacrifice, and to spill it onto the corner of the altar. The large mizrak is used when sacrificing larger animals, (cows and bullocks).
Three Pronged Fork - The three-pronged fork is mentioned in 1 Samuel 2:13. According to Rashi and Maimonides, the fork is used to turn over the offerings on the altar fire, or to lift up unconsumed portions of the offering so that the woodpile can be rearranged.
Measuring Cup
Measuring Cup - Measuring cups are used for measuring flour, wine and oil, of which specific amounts are prescribed to be used as ingredients in various offerings.
Copper Vessel
Copper Vessel - The copper vessel is used for preparing the meal offering. Meal offerings are made using various amounts of flour, oil and spices. 
Silver Shovel
Silver Shovel - The silver shovel is kept on the southwestern corner of the altar. The shovel is used for the removal of ashes left on the altar, the first task performed by the priests each morning at the break of dawn. 
Silver Vessel Wine Libation
Silver Vessel Wine Libation -The silver decanter is used for the wine libation. Wine is poured on the altar twice daily, morning and evening, accompanying the daily service.
Lottery Box or Kalpi - On Yom Kippur, the High Priest reaches into the lottery box and chooses lots. Thus is determined which goat will be used as an offering to G-d, and which will be sent off to Azazel, as an atonement for the sins of the people. During the First Temple, the lots were fashioned of wood. In the time of the Second Temple, they were of gold. The lots pictured above are fashioned of both wood and gold.
Silver Cup for Libations
Silver Cup for Water Libation - The silver cup, with the golden flask, is used in the Festival of the Water Libation, which takes place during the Holiday of Succot. At dawn, triests and levites, accompanied by the throngs of participants, wend their way down to the Spring of Shiloach. Water is drawn from the spring, and carried up the the Temple in the golden flask, where it is poured into the silver cup, as it rests atop the altar. 
Silver Libation Vessels - One of the main aspects of the holiday of Sukkot (Tabernacles) is the Biblical commandment, "And you shall be glad on your holiday, and you shall be only joyful" (Deut. 16:14). Indeed, the pilgrims who arrived in Jerusalem at the Temple's courtyard came to rejoice. The focus of this rejoicing was the ceremony surrounding the commandment to pour water on the altar - the water libation.
Sickle - On the 16th day of Nissan, in a public gathering on the outskirts of Jerusalem, the first of the barley crop is harvested using sickles. This barley is then brought to the Holy Temple to be used in the Omer offering.
Seives for Omer Offering - Once the barley is brought to the Temple Courtyard, priests beat, roast, grind, and sift the grain. A handful of the resulting flour is burned on the altar. The remainder is eaten by the priests.
Three Tier
3-Tiered Abuv - The Abuv is a three-tiered stand. The top level holds a perforated copper pan, and below it is a receptacle for hot coals. It is used for roasting the newly harvested barley of the Omer offering, performed on Passover.
Hatavat Menorah
Hatavat Menorah Cleansing Vessel- The daily service of the Temple includes the cleaning of the seven oil cups of the Menorah, using the vessel pictured above, (in Hebrew, Hatavah). The vessel includes tongs and a brush.
Oil Pitcher
Oil Pitcher - The oil pitcher is used to replenish the oil for the menorah. The design pictured above is based on an ancient coin from the Second temple period. This pitcher contains 3.5 lug, (2 liters) of oil.
Menorah Oil
Menorah Oil Flask - The small golden flask is used to pour olive oil into the menorah. The priest pours oil into this flask from the larger pitcher, which contains enough oil necessary for all seven lamps. This smaller flask is then used to replenish the oil of each individual lamp.  
Rankincense Censor
Frankincense Censor - Once a week, on the Sabbath, the twelve loaves of the showbread are removed by the priests, and replaced with new loaves. At the same time, the two portions of frankincense are also replaced. The two portions of frankincense are carried inside the gold Frankincense Censer. Still inside the censer, they are placed on the table of the showbread.
Incense Chalice
Incense Chalice - The incense chalice, which holds "half a portion" (approx. 200 grams), of the incense offering ingredients. The chalice is carried into the Sanctuary of the Temple, where the golden incense altar stands. Upon entering the Sanctuary the priest sounds the small ring-shaped bell seen on the top of the chalice cover.

Incense Shovel

Incense Shovel - This shovel is used to remove burning coals from the outer altar. The priest then carries the coals on this shovel into the sanctuary, where the coals are used on the golden incense altar.  
Menorah - The menorah, made from a single piece of solid gold, stands in the southern side of the Sanctuary. Each morning a priest prepares and rekindles the wicks. The central wick, known as "the western candle" is required to burn perpetually. The oil and wicks of this candle are changed in such a fashion as to insure that it will never be extinguished.  
Showbread Table
Showbread Table - in the northern side of the Sanctuary stands the table of the Showbread. The table is made of wood, overlaid with gold. Upon it are placed the twelve loaves of showbread. Each Sabbath, the loaves are simultaneously removed and replaced by fresh loaves, so as to insure that these loaves remain "perpetually" on the table. Miraculously, the week old loaves being replaced also retain their heat and freshness. These loaves are distributed among the priests.
Incense Altar
Incense Altar - Centrally located in the Sanctuary, between the menorah to the south, and the table of the showbread to the north, stands the incense altar, directly in front of the Holy of Holies, to the west. The incense altar, made of wood covered with gold, is employed in what is considered to be the most beloved aspect of the Temple service in G-d's eye: the incense offering. In order to allow for every priest to perform this most prized of offerings, a daily lot is drawn. Only those priests who have never offered incense upon the altar are allowed to participate.
arc with sphere
Ark of The Covenant - This is one implement/vessel that no one really knows what it looked like because of its secrecy. Even when carried before the Israelites during moves or battles, it was covered by a special cloth and no one could see it. When Christ returns we'll see exactly what the "wings of angels" really look like!
navigation end image
Excerpt from Aliens & In-laws

The Real Mount Sinai - In Saudi Arabia

he actual site of Mount Sinai where Moses received the Ten Commandments has been misidentified for centuries, since the time of the Roman Emperor Constantine. However, in 1988, two American explorers concluded that the traditional site of Mount Sinai was geographically incorrect. It was not in Egypt on the central-southern Sinai Peninsula, but rather in Saudi Arabia. Galatians clearly makes that distinction:




GALATIANS 4:22 For it is written, that Abraham had two sons, the one by a bondmaid [Hagar], and the other by a freewoman [Sarah].

23 But he who was of the bondwoman was born after the flesh; but he of the freewoman was by promise.

24 Which things are an allegory: for these are the two covenants; the one from the mount Sinai the Law, which gendereth to bondage, which is Agar [Greek spelling is Hagar, who birthed Islam’s lineage through Ishmaelsee Exodus Chpt. 21].

25 For this Agar is mount Sinai in Arabia, and answereth to Jerusalem which now is, and is in bondage with her children.

26 But Jerusalem [Mt. Zion: God’s holy mountain] which is above [i.e. in the heavenlies waiting to move to Earth at Christ's return] is free, which is the mother of us all [and home to God the Father, Jesus Christ, and the angels & saints – see Hebrews 12:22-24]. [Underlines added for emphasis]

By way of explanation, Ishmael is the father of today’s Arab/Muslim people. It’s interesting to note that the Muslim Law, called the Shariah, is an extensive set of dos and don’ts of personal and societal conduct. Their clergy is consumed with applying their Law to the people, even by force if necessary. They do not believe that Jesus is the only begotten Son of God, nor do they believe He was God’s promised Savior.

Abraham's other son, Isaac, was the lineage to King David who’s descendant produced Mary, the mother of Christ. She bore a son immaculately because of God’s promise. And because of the promise that Jesus brings, we do not have to live under the bondage of the Law, but rather, we have freedom in Christ’s sacrifice. It is simply available for the asking, but we shall get into that later.
Traditional Mount Sinai -- authenticity is challenged by Scripture & confirmed by satellite imagery of a Sinai Peninsula underwater land bridge in the Gulf of Aqaba
mr   traditional mt sinai

Figure 35
- Traditional Mount Sinai on the central-southern Sinai Peninsula. New evidence disputes accuracy of this location. This site was arbitrarily chosen by Roman Emperor Constantine’s mother, long after the actual Exodus, and has little in common with the facts of Moses’ journey to Midian.The Bible's account says that over two million Hebrews hid (while) under the mountain. Tradition has always interpreted this as they hid in caves from the descending cloud of God over Mt. Sinai. The mountain above has no such caves to hide in for a dozen people, let alone, up to three million, including childreen. Obviously something is amiss...or a mystery to be solved.
Figure 34 St. Catherine’s Monastery at the foot of the traditional site of Mt. Sinai, located in the central-southern area of the Sinai Peninsula.

Recent discovery -- challenges Moses’ traditional path to Mt. Sinai which was errantly charted by Roman Emperor Constantine and adopted by the Roman Catholic Church

Mount Sinai is not on the Sinai Peninsula where tradition has mistakenly placed it, but in Saudi Arabia. If it were on the Sinai Peninsula that would have required Moses and the Jews to cross either at the Reed Sea (or one of its tributaries) or at the western finger of the Red Sea, called the Gulf of Suez today. Crossing the waste-deep Reed Sea would not require much of a miracle and has been a favorite target for skeptics who claim a “typo” in the Bible. What is written “Red” should have been labeled “Reed,” they say. Crossing the thousand-foot-plus deep Gulf of Suez invited skepticism. It’s easy to see how skeptics would doubt the parting of a thousand-foot deep wall of water. It would be a monumental task, even for angels. Remember, God created the laws of physics and even the angels have to obey them.

But that was not necessary. Moses actually crossed the Gulf of Aqaba, not the Suez. And satellite imagery has discovered a natural underwater land bridge at the shores of Nuweiba Beach, making the crossing much more achievable. See our section called "Parting the Red Sea" to discover what has been known by past generations of this particular spot, dating back to the time Solomon.


Figure 37 The late Ron Wyatt, explorer and exegetical author, has revealed a very fascinating discovery. Satellite imagery was used to confirm a natural land bridge connecting the central-eastern Sinai Peninsula with the Saudi Arabian Kingdom. His claim that Moses crossed the Red Sea at that point is bourne out by the fact that impassable mountains block the escape of the Jews and their animals, as we see above, when the Pharaoh’s army tried to catch up to, and exterminate, the approximated 1-2 million Jews. Other evidences have revealed a mountain in Midian (modern-day Saudi Arabia) with all the necessary attributes to prove it is the true Mount Sinai. The top of that mountain, referred to as “The Mountain of Moses” by local villagers, is super-naturally scorched and its solid granite boulders bear a telltale blackened appearance (see figure 41 below).
The late Ron Wyatt, explorer and exegetical author has discovered that a natural land bridge – covered in only 50 feet of water, as revealed by infrared satellite imagery recently – connects the central-eastern Sinai Peninsula with the mainland of northwestern Saudi Arabia. Directly across this bridge, and just south, is a secret Saudi (Islamic) archaeological site guarded by soldiers and enclosed in 15-foot-high fencing topped with razor-wire. (see figure 40)

The fencing prohibits access to a large 8,000 foot high mountain called Jabal al Lawz – interpreted the “Mountain of Almonds”. It's also known locally as the "Mountain of Moses" (Jabal al Musa). The double-peaked formation has a natural amphitheater between its peaks (
see figure 43 below), a perfect place for a large audience to witness events on its summit.


Figure 38
- Example of artwork from Egypt featuring the bull god Apis. Same basic image as that shown to the right, except this more sophisticated design was done by the finest artisans in Pharoah’s court.

Figure 41 The top of the Saudi mountain is abnormally dark, like obsidian; the rocks look almost like coal. It appears as if the localized area has been scorched or exposed to extremely high temperatures from some outside force powerful and large enough to cause the entire top of the mountain to be discolored. The discoloration has penetrated at least one-quarter inch into the actual rock from the unknown influence, according to explorers Bob Cornuke and Larry Williams who claim to have hiked to its summit under the cover of darkness.

Mr. Wyatt and fellow explorers Bob Cornuke and Larry Williams are in agreement in their claims that this is the true Mount Sinai because it fits all the requirements, primarily that it is in Saudi Arabia. That means that Moses would likely have crossed over the shallow Reed Sea, but that is not where the miracle of the parting of the waters took place. The miracle actually occurred near the second inlet of the Red Sea, now called the Gulf of Aqaba (see figures 37 and 42).

Additionally, Cornuke and Williams were actually able to visit this site several years ago. On that trip they managed to sneak by the guards at night and dig under the fence isolating the site. When they surveyed the area they found what appeared to be a large altar constructed from stacked boulders (see figure 39). On some of the rocks they found 8 foot tall petroglyphs of cattle, something that resembled those found in Egypt, but not in Saudi Arabia where they’ve historically kept mainly sheep. Cornuke and Williams speculate this is the site where the tribe of Israel erected their pagan idol: the golden calf, fashioned after the Egyptian bull god, Apis (see figures 38 and 39).

Further exploration revealed the remnants of twelve columns constructed in a single row, just as described in the Bible (Exodus 24:4).

As they ascended the mountain, they noticed the rocks got blacker. It is the only mountain in the area with such a feature. The rocks and boulders appeared as dark as coal, almost volcanic, but when they broke some specimens open they discovered their centers were normal, light-colored granite as in the surrounding geography. These rocks had apparently been blackened by an outside source of tremendous heat, supporting the description Moses gave of the “sight of the glow of the Lord…like a devouring fire on the top of the mount…” (Exodus 24:17) (see figure 43 below).

They also found an ancient dry stream bed “…the brook that descended out of the mount” (Deuteronomy 9:21), and suitable vegetation to feed large numbers of livestock. Moses, we know, had kept sheep at Mount Sinai several years prior (Exodus 2:21, 3:1). In fact, it’s where he met his wife. When he returned with the Israelites, they camped there for eleven months, requiring sufficient food and water for their sizeable herds and millions of people. Only the Saudi site possessed the necessary components to support such a multitude.

Return to text

Tabernacle Area description   Sacrificial animal holding pen


Figure 46
 Altar area with several round sections of apparently toppled hewn columns. Perhaps the twelve pillars that Moses erected to represent the twelve tribes of Israel (see Exodus 24:4).
Pillar measures 24 inches   restricted area royal decree

Figure 48
 The site is well known to the Saudi Royal family and has been declared off limits to any outsiders. Any images of the mountain and its surrounding artifacts have been smuggled out by unauthorized individuals or taken with special permission from the Saudi government. Mostly the former.

Figure 49 Each hand-chisled white columnar section measures 24 inches across. Marauding nomads toppled the columns long ago, but the pillar remnants remain a testimony to the infallabiity of holy Scripture
As further proof of this amazing discovery's legitimacy, another key piece of evidence was also found on the backside of Jabal al-Musa: the split rock of Horeb. Exodus 17:1-7 describes an incident when the Israelites were in the wilderness without water. Moses, along with several elders, climbed up on a rock at Horeb, as commanded by God. They were preceded by the "fiery pillar" of God's angels where it hovered over the rock as Moses struck the rock with his staff and it split in half and gushed forth with streams of drinking water.

1 The whole Israelite community set out from the Desert of Sin, traveling from place to place as the LORD commanded. They camped at Rephidim, but there was no water for the people to drink.

2 So they quarreled with Moses and said, "Give us water to drink." Moses replied, "Why do you quarrel with me? Why do you put the LORD to the test?"

3 But the people were thirsty for water there, and they grumbled against Moses. They said, "Why did you bring us up out of Egypt to make us and our children and livestock die of thirst?"

4 Then Moses cried out to the LORD, "What am I to do with these people? They are almost ready to stone me."

5 The LORD answered Moses, "Walk on ahead of the people. Take with you some of the elders of Israel and take in your hand the staff with which you struck the Nile, and go.

6 I will stand there before you by the rock at Horeb. Strike the rock, and water will come out of it for the people to drink." So Moses did this in the sight of the elders of Israel.

7 And he called the place Massah and Meribah because the Israelites quarreled and because they tested the LORD saying, "Is the LORD among us or not?"

Exodus 17:1-7
But Moses was short-tempered that day because of his people's lack of faith and constant complaining. Because he struck the rock in anger, God denied his entry into the promised land (Numbers, chapter 20) but that's another story for another time.

Note the rock below is split through the middle and displays the pattern of water erosion and evidence that numerous streams came forth in several directions (Deuteronomy 9:21). That kind of abundance would have been required in order for the people and their livestock to drink of the life-giving water.

Split Rock at Horeb
Figure 50 The mountain range in the background is the actual "Mountain of Moses" or Jabal al-Musa in Arabic.
The split rock at Horeb   split rock at Horeb
Boulder with petroglyph of glowing object   Jabal al-Lawz Menorah
Figure 53 Another very interesting find in the area of Jabal al-Musa is a petroglyph of a large rounded dome-like structure which is giving off light. Note the four extensions from the bottom of the object (landing gear?). Does this image depict the angel of the Lord, that accompanied Moses and Aaron and the elders, which descended over the Split Rock of Horeb?   Figure 54 Yet another key find in the area of Jabal al-Musa is a Menorah carved into the rocks. The land has always been inhabited by nomadic Arabs and such an inscription would be rare, if not nonexistent. These evidences are overwhelming to me that the "Mountain of Moses" in Saudi Arabia is, indeed, where Moses was given the Ten Commandments by Yeshua.

An interesting side note: "Sinai" is derived from the name of the Babylonian moon-god Sin. "Horeb" is the original reference to Mount Sinai and, in this case, is referring to the area near the base of the mountain. The Ten Commandments were given to Moses on Mount Sinai as a way of dealing with sin. They were introduced by God as a way of pointing out that we are all sinners in need of a "savior" – someone to stand in for us in the covenant (contract) between man, who is inherently UN-holy, and a holy God who cannot allow sin in His presence.

The contract was made long ago, for all of mankind in absentia, between a man named Abraham and Jehovah God. God tested Abraham's faith (trust) by requesting that he be willing to sacrifice his son, Isaac. When God saw that Abram was willing to do so, an angel intervened and replaced Isaac with a sacrificial lamb caught in a thicket. But the willingness of Abram (later renamed Abraham by God in respect) was enough for God to willingly present His only begotten Son, Jesus, in like manner at the appropriate time in man's development. A sacrifice to seal His willing bond between Himself and mankind to forgive the penalty of our past sins. That's why Jesus is our propitiation (appeasement: relief of a demand) between man and God. Romans 3:24-25

In God's infinite wisdom and mercy, He has allowed us the privilege to choose Jesus as our savior. But He doesn't force His will upon us. He simply waits, like the gentleman that He is, for us to make the choice, when we are ready. We either believe His Word, or we reject His Word. It's really just as simple as that. Belief. But, of course, that takes faith. Another word for faith is trust. Are you trusting? How about ...are you trustworthy? Honest? "For none is holy among men, no not one." I Samuel 2:2 "For all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God." Romans 3:23 Words to contemplate. Words to live by.

The names "Horeb" and "Sinai" are interpreted to mean, respectively, "the mountain of the sword," because through this mountain the Sanhedrin acquired the right to sentence a man to capital punishment, and Sinai: "hostility," inasmuch as the mountain was hostile to the heathen (Ex. R. ii. 6). Shabbat 89a, b (of the Talmud) gives the following four additional names for Sinai: "Ẓin," "Ḳadesh," "Ḳedomot," and "Paran," but declares that its original name was "Horeb," according to Jewish scholars Joseph Jacobs, M. Seligsohn and Wilhelm Bacher. Link

Moses strikes the rock at Horeb
Figure 55 The Bible tells us that there were rushing waters that broke forth from the miraculous splitting of the massive rock at Horeb (see Psalm 78:15-16). The angel of the Lord told Moses that he would proceed ahead of the tribal elders and when they arrived at the proper place he told Moses to strike the rock once as a sign that God was with the Hebrews in their needs. But Moses lost his temper because of the people's constant complaining and their lack of faith. He struck the rock hard twice in his anger. Because he represented the goodness and holiness of Jeshua to the people, when he lost his temper in front of them he had misrepresented God, and thus the Lord told him he would not be allowed to step foot in the Promised Land. Moses was only human, after all, but, as a leader representing God, he was held to a much higher standard than the others.
It's astounding that these relics from the past are still with us after five thousand years! If existing physical proof of the reality of Moses' trek to Mount Sinai doesn't build your faith, then the next Intriguing revelation is sure to make you take notice and instill trust in the accuracy of the Holy Bible. No other document in the existence of mankind has been proven so reliable by so many sources. Here is yet another example: Noah's Ark Found…or, rather…rediscovered!
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INTRIGUE (cont'd)
•  Crop Circles: Signs On the Earth
  The Star of David
  The Bethlehem "Star"
  Noah's Ark Rediscovered!
  The Real Mount Sinai
  Parting The Red Sea
  Building the Third Temple
  Hebrew Gematria, Thirteen & 666
  Tetrahedron Unified Field Theorem
  Mothership Zion: New Jerusalem
  Making A Submission
How To Get Your Ideas Online
 Marketing is Key to Success
   Blue Book
Project 1947
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